Previous research has shown that Kir Stefan the Serb lived in the XV century. Traces of his existence are found in the monastery in Kumanovo, in todays Macedonia, in a monastery in Romania, but also in the court of Despot Lazar Branković in Smederevo, where he served as domestic — choir conductor and dijak — clerk. A number of Stefan's texts and scripts are preserved in foreign libraries.
However, his collection of church songs — Psaltikija — is of most importance for our medieval music culture. The original handwriting of Psaltikije was kept in the National Library in Belgrade, unfortunately it perished 6th April 1941, when the entire National library burned down after the bombardment. Only twelve photocopies were saved, which beside Greek songs contain nine Serbian songs, of which the most precious are "Ninja sili nebesnije" and "Vkusite i vidite", because both had a signature of the author "Tvorenije domestika kir Stefana Srbina".
Psaltikija was written in late Byzantine neumska notation with church Slavic and Greek text. Of interest is that it offers theoretic interpretations in addition to melody — papadiku with old Slavic music terminology. Instructions are mainly related to the pace (the speed) and dynamics (strength, design of music phrase). The margins of this manuscript indicate that it was used by domestic priests and monks, and on one of the pages an admirer of these songs writes: "Blissful is the man that wrote this divine book".
Even though the existence of Psaltikija is known from the beginning of the XX century, the most fundamental analysis of the remaining pages has been compiled only in 1961 by Dimitrije Stefanović, the director of the Musicological Institute SANU, who also transcribed to contemporary notation songs "Ninja sili" and "Vkusite i vidite". "Ninja sili" is actually a Cherubic song.
A manuscript exists in Athens National library, under the number 928, in which beside Kir Stefan, the names of authors Hieromonk Nikola Srbin and Isaija Srbin from the XVI century are found (although a mention of Isaija appears even in the XV century). Isaija wrote "Polyeleos Servikos" based on the psalm verses 134 and 135, in both church Slavic and Greek languages, while Nikola is the author of the Cherubic hymn with Greek text.
Even though Kir Stefan, Isaija and Nikola are the only reliably Serbian medieval composers for whom we know till now, there is another name: "Joakim monah i domestik Srbije" — as he signed in 1453 in more places in the manuscript number 2406 from the Athens National library. Three compositions in this large collection carry Joakims name - two Kinoniks (pričastena) and one Theotokion (Madonna's song). Although, given the Greek text that was signed under Neum, Joakim's nationality can not be determined with confidence (because he has the title "domestik Srbije" does not necessarily mean that he was a Serb), this manuscript is still an important evidence that close links existed in the Middle Ages between the Byzantine church and Serbian music.